A cortical neuron receives thousands of synaptic inputs through its dendrite, and the spatial distribution of the synaptic inputs on the dendrite is considered to influence neural computation significantly. Recent experimental results revealed that the relative spike timings among neighboring synapses on a dendritic branch have significant influence on changes in synaptic efficiency of these synapses, in addition to the spike time difference between the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons [1-3]. Especially, the timing of GABAergic input exerts a great impact on synaptic plasticity at nearby Glutamatergic synapses. Here, we derived a simple yet biologically plausible computational model of this heterosynaptic form of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (h-STDP), by extending previous biochemical models of homosynapic STDP, and we investigated its functional role. In particular, we explored its contribution to dendritic computation. The model reproduces several effects of h-STDP observed in the hippocampal CA1 area and the striatum of rodents. The model further indicates that h-STDP causes the detailed balance between excitatory and inhibitory inputs on a dendritic branch to enrich dendritic computation.
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